Since we experienced a great interest in our German Introduction courses, in September we are going to offer a beginner and intermediate Medical German fee-paying language courses without credit points with English as mediator language for you, preparing you for the TELC medical German exam. If you have never learnt German and are interested in our Introduction to German for Medical Purposes I. or II., you can take up this course for you in the following academic year (starting in September this year), where the mediator language will be in English.
SU, Department of Languages for specific purposes
- English/German/French/Italian/Russian/Spanish for Medical Purposes I-IV.
- Language Course for the University Basic Exam in English / German/ French / Italian / Spanish / Russian*
- Preparation Course for the University Professional Basic Exam in English / German/ French / Italian / Spanish / Russian for Medical Purposes *
- University Professional Basic Exam in English / German for Medical Purposes *
- University Professional Basic Exam in French / Italian / Spanish / Russian for Medical Purposes *
- Preparation Course for the University Professional Final Exam in English for Medical Purposes *
- Medical Terminology
- Medical Terminology for Specialists
- English/German/French/Italian/Russian/Spanish for Dental Medical Purposes I-IV *
- Preparation Course for the University Elementary Exam in English/German/French/Italian/Spanish/Russian for Dental Medical Purposes *
- University Elementary Exam in English/German for Dental Medical Purposes *
- University Elementary Exam in French/Italian/Russian/Spanish for Dental Medical Purposes *
- Medical Terminology
- Preparation Course for the University Professional Basic Exam in English / German/ French / Italian / Spanish / Russian for Pharmaceutical Purposes I-II *
- Language for pharmaceutical purposes I. English / German / French / Italian / Spanish / Russian I-IV *
- Advanced Preparation Course for the University Professional Basic Exam in English for Pharmaceutical Purposes *
- Preparation Course for the University Professional Basic Exam in English / German/ French / Italian / Spanish / Russian for Pharmaceutical Purposes *
- University Professional Exam in English / German for Pharmacy *
- University Professional Exam in French/Spanish/Italian/Russian for Pharmacy *
Medical Latin and Healthcare Terminology (compulsory in the 1st year of studies, 2-2 credits)
The aim of the subject is to help students acquire the basics of Medical Latin necessary for their healthcare practice. Medical Latin provides a solid foundation to understanding the vocabulary of their professional subjects by students’ gaining practice in the etymological analysis of terms. A further aim of the subject is to familiarise students with the nomenclature of Anatomy and Physiology, as well as the terms and basic grammar needed for every healthcare practice.
The basics of Medical Latin acquired in the autumn semester are necessary to study Healthcare Terminology. Building on these Latin grounds we get familiarised with the Greek and Latin terms used in diagnostics. We focus on word-formation with the help of Greek combining forms, agreeing Latin adjectives to Greek words, and building Latin diagnostic and pharmacological vocabulary.
Basics of Foreign Language – English/German (for students starting their studies before 2021)
The purpose of the language teaching modules is to place students in groups suitable for their initial levels of foreign language skills, where they can develop their general and professional vocabulary in the target language and acquire the necessary communications skills enabling them, on the one hand, to pass a B2-level language exam and, on the other hand, to understand foreign-language professional literature and to successfully communicate with foreign colleagues in future.
For students starting their studies in 2021 and later we recommend our elective course Basics of Foreign Language for Healthcare Purposes for 2 credits in case students do not have a B2 level language exam of either English or German.
Foreign Language for Healthcare Purposes – English/German (compulsory in the 3rd year of studies, 2 semesters, 3-3 credits)
The course aims at introducing students to scientific and professional texts in their field of health sciences. Students read and listen to authentic spoken and written scientific and professional texts, which they analyse and by the help of communication tools and techniques they acquire ESP register and language skills necessary for them in their future work. The course also enables students to take Profex ESP B2 level complex language exam. The course also focuses on the development of receptive and productive skills (listening, reading, speaking, and writing) with regard to the given field of health sciences. Students acquire the terminology of professional discourses as well as mediation skills. The complex methodology of online and offline education provides the possibility of authentic language usage.
Oral/Written Intercultural Communication (compulsory course in the Health Tourism Management programme)
The aim of the subject is to develop students’ intercultural communication in foreign language environments. By exploring the characteristics of intercultural contexts and how these affect language use, they become more conscious users of the language, and therefore they improve the effectiveness of their communication on the foreign language. Main topics coming up during the role plays and other tasks: concept of culture (preconceptions, norms, beliefs), challenges of language use in intercultural contexts, consciousness of health concepts, active listening, sensitivity for others, responsible communication, assertive communication.
Thesis methodology – Academic Writing (compulsory elective thesis module, 1 credit)
The aim of the subject is to help improve students’ knowledge of Hungarian grammar, stylistics and use of Hungarian as well as to raise their awareness of the style and vocabulary appropriate for the genre of a university thesis with the express purpose of helping them write their theses at a high linguistic standard. The course will give students insight into research methodologies in health sciences so that they will be able to write a thesis. It will offer students necessary tools and guidelines for researching and writing a good scholarly thesis based on independent research, thinking and sound argument.
Medical Latin and Healthcare Terminology (compulsory in the 1st year of studies, 2-2 credits)
By developing an awareness in interpreting and formulating Latin anatomical terms as well as physiological and diagnostic terms of Greek and Latin origin, students become more confident users of the nomenclature of Anatomy and the health sciences, which greatly supports their studies. They acquire the meaning of anatomical, diagnostic, and physiological terms, which provides them with the possibility to study anatomy and health care related subjects in a more effective way. The material follows the topics of Anatomy classes. The body systems discussed on the Anatomy classes are looked at from a linguistic point of view. Furthermore, physiological and diagnostic terminology related to the discussed body systems is in focus.
Basics of Foreign Language (Hungarian as a foreign language – compulsory for the first 4 semesters, in the 1st and 2nd years of studies)
The role of this subject is to help students acquire the basic vocabulary, grammar and language skills they need for the effective communication in the language they use during their field practice both in their everyday life /’survival language’/ and in their academic studies. Raising students’ awareness of cultural differences is one of our top priorities.
Foreign Language for Healthcare Purposes (Hungarian as a foreign language) – compulsory in the 3rd year of studies, 2 semesters, 3-3 credits)
The aim of this subject is to improve students’ foreign language competence acquired during the previous semesters and to prepare them for effective interprofessional communication and communication with patients when they are doing their field-practice in hospitals; to teach them the basic healthcare vocabulary and to further develop their – mainly speaking and listening – language skills. Raising students’ awareness of cultural differences in healthcare is one of our top priorities.
Thesis methodology – Academic Writing (compulsory elective thesis module, 1 credit)
The aim of the subject is to help improve students’ knowledge of English grammar, stylistics and use of English as well as to raise their awareness of the style and vocabulary appropriate for the genre of a university thesis with the express purpose of helping them write their theses at a high linguistic standard. The course will give students insight into research methodologies in health sciences so that they will be able to write a thesis. It will offer students necessary tools and guidelines for researching and writing a good scholarly thesis based on independent research, thinking and sound argument.
Interpretation of Medical Diagnoses and Prescriptions I-II.
The aim of this elective course is to prepare students for confident interpretation of the Latin and Greek terms as well as abbreviations on medical diagnoses and records. The course builds on the compulsory courses Medical Latin and Healthcare Terminology.
Students learn the specific terminology of Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology, Internal medicine, Gynaecology, Urology, Cardiology, Rheumatology, etc. We pay special attention to opening up and understanding Latin and Greek abbreviations. Furthermore, extra emphasis is put on creating appropriate Hungarian translations in order to enhance effective patient-provider communication. An additional goal of the course is to motivate students to carry out individual terminological research with the help of dictionaries and the internet.
The Language of Anatomy in English I-II.
The aim of this elective course is to learn about the language of Anatomy in English. It is a 2-semester subject, strictly following the materials covered in Anatomy lectures and practices. We look at the anatomical topics from a linguistic point of view: on how students can formulate the knowledge acquired in Anatomy in English. Furthermore, we explore how Latin lexis and grammar is used in English. The classes have two main foci: students examine the difference between Latin and English anatomical nomenclature and learn how to convert Latin terms into English; moreover, they learn about the linguistic characteristics of English anatomical descriptions, so they become capable of presenting the human body appropriately in English.
Patient-Centred Communication Skills in Spoken English
The aim of the subject is to introduce students to the elements of the oral communication necessary for patient-centred health care in English with the analysis of audio and video materials. In professional role-play situations they learn the appropriate application of the necessary language skills and competences.
The students get familiar with the elements of the patient-centred communication widely used in English-speaking countries, including the usage of person-centred language, the techniques of active listening, supportive questioning, the language skills necessary for exploring the patients’ physical, mental and spiritual needs, and motivational interviewing. The students explore the possible techniques, focused communication strategies, and professional expressions with discussing the examples given in the English-language audio and video materials and subsequently they practice their application in professional situations with the help of role-play discussions. The reflective methods used during the task aim to create the possibility of continuous development.
In class the material is studied with varied methods and tasks adapted to the development of the given language skills, for example, role-play, situational activities, listening and reading comprehension tasks, preparation for independent communication, vocabulary building tasks, among others.
Health Care Communication in English/German-Language Media
The subject aims at providing students with an insight into the English/German-language health care, its constitution and communication characteristics with analysing British and North American /German, Austrian, and Swiss authentic healthcare situations and case studies. Studying and evaluating communication situations and cases shown and described in the media of the given countries develop the students’ textual and listening comprehension, vocabulary and intercultural skills, and reproducing these situations improves their speaking and communication skills in the interaction with patients and colleagues.
Skills Development for ESP (healthcare professionals)
The task-based course and information share help students workin English in a professional setting in the future. Students can enlarge their academic vocabulary and obtain B2+ level register so in their later studies and work they will be able to read and understand professional texts (written and spoken). They will also be able to express their views on professional topics. Students work with Ted talks and scientific materials of their own professional interest.
They need to read professional texts and based on these discuss professional problems and issues.
Speaking Skills in English/German
The aim of the course is to enable students to improve both their ability to communicate and their linguistic competence. Their productive speaking skills are developed through communicative classes and self‐study. Students enlarge their general and healthcare vocabulary and acquire techniques and language functions required for communication in health care (introduction, inquiry, giving advice etc.), which enables them to use different professional registers.
C1 speaking skills development in Health Sciences
The course aims at developing students’ listening and speaking skills. The students listen to monologues on medical themes and professional dialogues and discussions between health care professionals. Speaking skills development concentrates on presentation techniques along with dialogues with non-professionals and professionals alike in the field of health sciences. Students learn about the different registers of a given medical topic and effective communication . At the end of the course the student is able to give clear and detailed descriptions of illnesses and cases in the field of health sciences.
Preparation for professional oral language exam
The aim of the subject is to prepare students for the intermediate professional oral language exam. With practicing the topics of the introductory conversation, the students learn to talk about their individual fields of profession, their experiences, and future ideas. They also learn to describe graphs and communicate with colleagues and patients.
Preparation for professional written language exam
The aim of the subject is to prepare students for the intermediate professional written language exam. Practising reading comprehension, letter-writing, rendering and translation.
English Grammar in Medical Oral Communication
The students review the grammatical elements appropriate and effective in professional communication and learn how to use these with confidence in speaking. The students review the already learnt grammatical forms essential in effective healthcare communication, they explore their significance, the delicacy of their usage, and the differences in meaning when studying real-life health care situations. With completing professional situation and communication tasks students acquire the practice in the usage of these grammatical skills and the confidence necessary to the fluency and effectiveness of the relationships with patients and other professionals. The subject incorporates the widening of the professional vocabulary as well.
Presentation techniques (English/German)
The aim of this elective course is to help students improve their English presentation skills. Techniques will be centred around two main contexts: prevention education topics and highly formal academic presentations with special focus on the thesis presentation. Students learn about the structure of academic and prevention education presentations. They improve their ability in expressing their ideas in the most appropriate way relative to the context. Furthermore, they learn to use visuals while presenting empirical data or enhancing their message. The topics of the classes: The structure of presentations – listening techniques, Structuring a topic, Writing the introduction and the conclusion, Techniques of arguments, The language of presentations, Formal vs informal language use (register awareness), Presenting the ideas of others (literature review), Talking about empirical findings (data collection and results on diagrams and in tables), Sounding confident and professional, Handling questions.
Academic Reading and Writing (English)
The aim of this elective course is to help students improve their English academic skills in order to facilitate their thesis-writing. The subject focuses on two main areas: processing highly formal publications in the topics of midwifery and producing a coherent and well-structured academic piece of writing. Furthermore, the efficient exploitation of academic resources will be dealt with – i.e. how one should incorporate, cite or rephrase ideas from a publication in a thesis. Students learn about the structure of academic publications and the textual characteristics of essays and paragraphs. By developing the ability to quickly discover the structure of articles, they become more efficient in processing large amounts of publications. Building on this knowledge they learn how to structure English academic texts, both at the macro and micro levels and express their own and others’ ideas and findings in an academic way. Also, they familiarize themselves with various discourse functions, such as description, argumentation, comparison, critique. It is aimed that by the end of the course, students become confident in academic reading and writing.
Terminology of Health Sciences (4 semesters, 10 credits)
Being a translator and interpreter requires high level medical language use, which is primarily based on the knowledge of terms. Linguistic mediation can be effective only if the mediator is capable of using the right terms in the target language. The aim of this subject is to enable students to use terms properly, with special attention to the differences between English and Hungarian terms, to the characteristic features of using English in various contexts, and to orthographic and pronunciation differences. The student becomes able to use language according to the norms of any situation and context. In the first semester the students get familiarised with general terminology research and concepts, as well as the patterns in term creation, which is followed by further three semesters where they acquire a wide range of terms and abbreviations necessary to effective communication in health care and the health sciences. During the course, students explore the specific language of various health care topics with the help of comparative analyses of written and oral texts, and they learn to use terms in accordance with the genre requirements of several texts.
Genres in Health Sciences (2 semesters, 7 credits)
Semester 1: The aim of the course is to acquaint students with the wide range of genres used in health care, with their terminology and the methodology of genre analysis. The subject improves students’ genre awareness, text analysis skills, and will be able to create coherent texts that fulfil the genre requirements of the target culture. With this knowledge students will be able to make conscious decisions and produce high quality translations even in genres they are unfamiliar with.
Semester 2: The aim of the course is to familiarise students with discourse analysis of oral genres in health care and health sciences. The analysis of genres improves students’ Hungarian-English genre competence and awareness. Students develop the skills of conscious text formation by taking contextual features into consideration.
Introduction to Translation Studies (1 semester, 3 credits)
The aim of the course is to introduce students to the process by which translation science has become an independent discipline within linguistics, and to acquaint students with the concepts, methods and tools used in modern translation science, which will also come up later in seminars and will be useful during their professional careers. During the semester, students will learn about the history of translation science, its interdisciplinarity nature, and see how disciplines such as sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, or text linguistics aid them make translation decisions. In the lectures they will also learn about the different types of equivalence and the translation universe, and the role of English as a lingua franca in medical translation. For more effective learning, students are given compulsory readings as homework, which will be discussed in class along with examples from health care.
Introduction to the Practice of Translation (1 semester, 4 credits)
The aim of the course is to practice transfer operations after the theoretical training. Students become familiar with the different types of healthcare texts, their style, vocabulary and grammar. They also translate shorter texts, which experience they can use in the forthcoming translation courses. Learning about translation operations helps students distance themselves from the source text and create translations that function well in the target language and culture. A further aim of the course is for students to compile a compendium of transfer operations found in medical translations. During the semester, students can learn about lexical and grammatical transfer operations in both English-Hungarian and Hungarian-English translations. Following the introductory lecture, students first take investigate lexical, then grammatical transfer operations and study examples from both general and healthcare texts. Students then search for transfer operations in the texts they bring to class, then organize+B36 their results in their own compendium. During the semester, students are divided into groups to examine the frequency of the different transfer operations in 4 healthcare genres: 2 written for professionals and 2 for lay people / patient.
L1-L2 Translation, Health Sciences (3 semesters, 11 credits)
In the course students can gain experience in working on a strict deadline and can get to know the different types of medical texts. They are also exposed to the challenges of translating medical terminology and have the opportunity to widen their knowledge in transfer operations from Hungarian to English. The translation tasks are focusing on various genres of the health sciences with the help of IPDR (integrated problem and decision reporting). Furthermore, students prepare glossaries for each translated text.
L2-L1 Translation, Health Sciences (3 semesters, 15 credits)
Lectures: Having learnt about transfer operations, the aim of the course is for students to acquire text-level translation strategies, which will enable them to produce even more accurate, professionally relevant translations meeting the expectations of the target language audience. The course also aims to shed light on cases, where a grammatically correct text cannot be considered an acceptable translation.
Seminars: In the course students can gain experience in translating and proofreading on a strict deadline and can get to know a wide range of medical genres. Having learnt about transfer operations, in the seminars students acquire text-level translation strategies, which will enable them to produce even more accurate, professionally relevant translations meeting the expectations of the target language audience. The central topic of the course is translating medical genres. of the target language matching of genre specifics. Further aim of the course is for students to boost their term base, find a thesis topic and prepare for the final exam.
Translating to Hungarian: Specifics of the Target Language (2 semesters, 4 credits)
The aim of this subject is to develop a confident use of the Hungarian language by assembling a handy collection of necessary Hungarian spelling rules. We deconstruct several “myths” about “proper Hungarian language use”. Furthermore, students learn the basics of Ms Word review function.
Introduction to Interpretation Studies (1 semester, 3 credits)
The aim of the course is to make students familiar with basic interpretation techniques, to understand the areas and methods of use of each techniques, the task of interpreter and the way in which they behave correctly in health situations. In the first lecture, students will learn about the difference between interpretation and translation, the etymology and history of interpretation, as well as the task of the interpreter and basic interpretation techniques. In the future, students will learn more about the methods and types of interpretation and their specific uses and methods of application. Through special interpretation situations, they can gain insight into the daily lives of interpreters, with the special task of preparing, and learn the basic principles of interpreter ethics and protocol.
Consecutive Interpretation (4 semesters, 16 credits)
The aim of this subject is to put interpreting techniques (learnt on the lecture) into practice. Students learn about various healthcare texts, they acquire the lexical and grammatic characteristic of these texts and they engage in the interpretation of healthcare texts. Students practice interpreting techniques. We discuss problems and their possible solutions on the lessons. Language use, vocabulary development, and memory building all play important role in the classes. We analyse the language use in both Hungarian and English and their translation to the target language in various topics.
Consecutive Interpretation at Meetings (3 semesters, 9 credits)
The aim of this subject is to put interpreting techniques (learnt on the lecture) into practice. Students learn about various healthcare texts, they develop and practise effective strategies in different communicative situations in health care. The subject focuses on practising communicative tasks in which the interpreter plays a communicative, mediator role. Students prepare for possible situations, speeches with preparing the vocabulary and language use. Moreover, they gain further practice in note-taking and learn to address challenges of interlocutors’ different cultural and professional backgrounds. We further focus on the protocols and ethics of interpretation.
Professional Forum for Translators and Interpreters (2 semesters, 4 credits)
Students get acquainted with the operation of translation and interpreting agencies and have a glimpse into the everyday work of translators and interpreters. The course facilitates students’ subsequent employment as they prepare for the actual challenges that await them in the world of work. Topics: Setting up a translation agency, the process of translation; Computer-Assisted Translation (CAT) tools in translation; The process of interpreting process; Practical problems of translation and interpreting their possible solutions. Professional forum with the participation of practicing interpreters and translators.
Consolidation Course in Advanced Oral/Written Communication (1 semester, 12 credits)
The purpose of the course is to help students progress from B2 to C1 level, enabling them to acquire a high level of oral communication skills, and thus to lay the foundation for interpretation courses.
Comparative Country Profiling (2 semesters, 4 credits)
The Contrastive Country Profiling module places the emphasis on the British cultural, social and economic environment and traditions while studying them from the perspective of health care, the knowledge of which is necessary for the effective professional written and oral communication. The first term is devoted to the British culture and the second analyses the North American culture.
The students will be acquainted with the most important healthcare-related phenomena of the British culture. The gained knowledge and the class practices further the development of the students’ intercultural, sociolinguistic and communicative sensitivity and competence.
Health Policies of the European Union (2 semesters, 4 credits)
The subject focuses on the social politics and health policies of the European Union. They learn about the main forms of health institutions, legal and ethical questions. A comparative analysis of certain groups of EU countries is also carried out, with special focus on how the health systems of these countries developed over the years.
Computer Aided Translation -Trados/memoQ (2 semesters, 4 credits)
The aim of this subject is to familiarise students with CAT programs, how they work and how these tools aid everyday translation work.
Thesis (1 semester, 10 credits)
The task of the subject is to prepare the students for the preparation of a thesis related to the subject of their studies, by which the student is taught that, based on the knowledge acquired, he is able to apply the acquired knowledge in practice with the help of the necessary literature, to carry out a greater amount of independent work. The subject is based on the cooperation of the subject leader and the thesis writer, and the students prepare their thesis under constant guidance. During the consultations, the students will be given guidance on the choice of subjects, discuss the aspects of the processing of usable resources and literature related to the subject, and the process of processing the techniques acquired. Emphasis will be placed on the question and analysis of the results based on the thesis.
Medical Hungarian I-IV (4 semesters, 8 credits)
The aim of the subject is to enable students to take patient’s history, ask about medical history and present complaints. We focus on developing skills and strategies necessary to understand Hungarian patients during their clinical practice. Students learn to give instructions during examination and get familiarised with relevant clinical documents (charts, discharge papers, etc.). Vocabulary building is centred around symptoms of common conditions.
Clinical Hungarian (elective course, 2 credits)
The subject provides further opportunities for the students who have passed the final exam of Hungarian Medical Terminology to practice their competencies in communicating with patients in Hungarian (with special focus on register awareness and exploring the patient’s communicative attitude). Topics: General listening and phonological practice; The Hungarian healthcare system; Doctor-patient communication in internal medicine, in dermatology; in pulmonology; in cardiology; in orthopaedics; in urology; in gynaecology; in ENT; in paediatrics; in neurology and psychiatry. Grammatic topics focus on noun, adjective, and verb formation, as well as indirect speech.
Medical Terminology (1 semester, 2 credits)
Medical Terminology is a course designed for medical students to ease their everyday studies by providing them with linguistic and terminological knowledge. The material is closely built on the terminology of Anatomy, Physiology, clinical and pathological diagnoses, and Pharmacology. Students get familiarized with the most sufficient grammatical rules governing medical terminology and become able to formulate both Latin and Greek medical phrases. Topics covered: Latin nouns in Anatomy; The dictionary form of Latin nouns; Latin possessive phrases in Anatomy; The plural form of Latin nouns; Latin adjectives in Anatomy; The dictionary form of Latin adjectives and their agreement to nouns; Anatomical adjectives from nouns; Pharmaceutical terminology; Greek terminology; Diagnostic phrases.
Medical Terminology II (elective course, 2 credits)
The aim the course is to extend students’ medical terminology by going through the main body systems and getting acquainted with the names of conditions, symptoms, or anatomical structures. Students develop a more advanced terminological knowledge not only by learning new Latin phrases or Greek combining forms, but also by improving their skills in interpreting medical terms with the help of etymological notes and word formation rules and conventions. Topics covered: Locomotor system; Cardiovascular system; Respiratory system; Gastrointestinal system; Revision with the help of case studies; Oral health; Neurology; The sensory orgarns; The skin – the integumentary system; The reproductive system
Hungarian Pharmaceutical Terminology I-IV (4 semesters, 4 credits)
The role of this subject is to help students acquire the basic vocabulary, grammar, and language skills they need for the effective communication in the language they use during their field practice both in their everyday life /’survival language’/ and in their academic studies.
The first and second semesters are dedicated to learning basic general vocabulary and grammar. Students acquire basic structures and the vocabulary for everyday topics (e.g., shopping, food, housing). The course places special emphasis on phrases essential for everyday communication, e.g. introductions, greetings, getting/giving information etc. and on phrases needed in basic communication at a pharmacy.
The third and fourth semesters are dedicated to learning how to communicate with clients and colleagues at the pharmacy. Students acquire basic structures and the vocabulary for describing the characteristics of medicines. The course places special emphasis on functional language needed for obtaining and providing information, giving recommendations and instructions and on phrases needed in basic communication at a pharmacy. The semesters also focus on preparing students for the final exam (both written and oral) at the end of the 4th semester.
Pharmaceutical Terminology (1 semester, 2 credits)
The course is to prepare students for understanding Latin and Greek medical and pharmaceutical terminology, including the language of anatomy, diagnostics, pathophysiology, and prescriptions. Students get familiarised with the basics of Latin grammar, such as forming plural forms of Latin nouns, adjective agreement, the use of numbers, and prepositional phrases (accusative and ablative cases). Furthermore, they develop an extensive Latin and Greek vocabulary that enables them to understand and formulate medical terms in the fields of medicine and pharmaceutics.