Colloquium questions, endodontics

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Final exam questions


  1. Definition of dental caries. Theories of caries development. Current concept of caries development.
  2. Localisation, characterisation, progression and histology of dental caries.
  3. Primary factors in caries development. Development and microbiological structure of dental plaque and its role in caries formation.
  4. Nutrition and saliva in development of dental caries
  5. Secondary factors in development of dental caries. Local and systemic factors.
  6. Diagnosis of caries in pits and fissures, in smooth surfaces and in root surfaces. Assessment tools.
  7. Caries prevention
  8. Epidemiology and indexes of dental caries. Determination of risk patients.
  9. Requirements for restorative materials. Classification of restorative materials.
  10. Liners, bases and temporary filling materials. Composition, structure and properties.
  11. Glass ionomer cements (polyalkenoat, resin- and polyacid modified): compositions, structures and properties.
  12. Composition, properties and toxicology of dental amalgam.
  13. Rules for safety and environmental protection during amalgam-application
  14. Composition, classification and properties of composites.
  15. The steps of adhesive restoration/filling technique. Structural changes in enamel and dentin.
  16. Acid etching and priming
  17. Classification of dentin bonds
  18. Possible mistakes of adhesive restoration technique and how to avoid them.
  19. Principles and possibilities in usage of hand and rotary cutting instruments.
  20. Evolution of rotary cutting equipments and their classification according to the driving. Handpieces and speed limit.
  21. Rotary cutting instruments. Definition, design characteristics and classification. (ISO 6360)
  22. Alternative methods in cavity preparation and in caries removal. Oscillation, laser, air-abrasion and chemical caries removal. 



  1. Medical and dental history and examination of the patient in operative dentistry.
  2. The conditions of proper diagnosis and its instruments in operative dentistry.
  3. Treatment plan in operative dentistry.
  4. Ergonomic in organizing of dental workplace, preoperative considerations.
  5. Infection control in dentistry.
  6. The definition and methods of sterilisation and disinfection.
  7. Four-handed treatment.
  8. The position of the patient, dentist and assistant during the treatment of different quadrants.
  9. The techniques of local anaesthesia in operative dentistry.
  10. Isolation of the operating field.
  11. Fundamentals and modifications in tooth preparation. Initial and final stages of cavity preparation.
  12. Conventional, modified conventional and minimal invasive cavity design. What can influence our decision?
  13. Specific cavity preparation. (tunnel, only-box, slot preparation)
  14.  The indications, contraindications and instruments of amalgam restorations.
  15. Class II. cavity preparation and making amalgam restoration.
  16. Cavity preparation for direct Classes III. and IV. composite restorations.
  17. Cavity preparation for direct Classes V. and VI. composite restorations.
  18. Indications for direct composite restorations. Steps and  clinical application of adhesive filling technique.
  19. The cause of dentin sensitivity and its treatment possibilities.
  20. Indications for indirect restorations and clinical procedures.
  21. Indication, contraindication, cavity preparation and clinical procedures of cast metal restorations.
  22. Impression and temporary restoration for indirect restoration.
  23. Indication, contraindication, cavity preparation and clinical procedures of indirect tooth coloured restorations.
  24. Fixation (cementation) of indirect tooth coloured restoration.
  25. Indication and contraindication of veneers. Types of veneer. Preparation, impression and insertion. 


  1. Medical and dental history, examination and treatment planning in endodontics.
  2. Making diagnosis in endodontics.
  3. The anatomy and histology of the pulp and periapical tissues
  4. The causes and characteristics of pulpitis
  5. The pathology, symptoms and therapy of pulpal diseases.
  6. The pathology, symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of reversible pulpitis.
  7. The pathology, symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of irreversible pulpitis.
  8. The classification of periradicular lesions.
  9. The pathology, symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of acute and chronic apical periodontitis.
  10. The pathology, symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of condensing osteitis.
  11. The pathology, symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of acute and chronic apical abscess
  12. Endodontic radiography. Interpretation, limitation, mistakes and differential diagnosis.
  13. Odontogen focal infection
  14. Microbiology of the infected root canal.
  15. Systemic and local medication in endodontic treatment.
  16. Instruments, used in root canal treatment and root canal obturation
  17. The goal, indication, contraindication and the steps of the root canal treatment.
  18. Access cavity preparation and length determination
  19. Different methods for (techniques ) preparing of the root canal (cleaning and shaping).
  20. The objective of the obturation: apical, coronal and lateral seal. Timing of the obturation.
  21. Materials for root canal obturation
  22. Methods (techniques) of root canal obturation and their instrumentation
  23. Restoration of the endodontically treated tooth. Requirement, principles and concepts.
  24. Procedural accidents during access preparation, shaping, cleaning and obturation. (Causes, treatment and prevention)
  25. Vertical (longitudinal) root fracture: causes, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Evaluation of success and failure in root canal treatment.
  26. Orthograde retreatment. Consideration, case selection and retreatment techniques.
  27. Endodontic surgery : incision, periradicular surgery, root amputation, hemisection, bicuspidation. (Indication, contraindication, practice)
  28. Maintenance of the vital pulp. Treatment of deep carious lesion. (Pulp capping, pulpotomy).
  29. Endodontic emergencies.
  30. Bleaching discoloured teeth. Causes of discoloration, indication and contraindication of bleaching. Bleaching materials and techniques