Pázmány Péter Catholic University
Faculty of Information Technology and Bionics

Molecular biology subject
(5 credit points, terminal examination, Prof. Miklós Csala; P-ITBIO-0046)

Lecturers: Prof. Miklós Csala , Dr. Éva Kereszturi, Dr. Tamás Mészáros, Dr. Veronika Zámbó
Teaching secretary: Dr. Veronika Zámbó
2023/2024 Spring semester


The knowledge to be attained
The storage, maintenance and expression of genetic information, as well as their molecular mechanisms are fundamental topics of the course. DNA replication, DNA damage and repair, RNA synthesis and processing, protein synthesis, maturation and targeting, and different ways of regulation of gene expression are discussed. Regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis, in the light of the molecular background of tumor development is also part of the subject. Some of the lectures provide insights into molecular biology research.

Midterm tests and Students’ presentation
Two oral midterm examinations are held during the semester. In each occasion, a random topic should be picked from the list and answered verbally. The student’s performance is evaluated from 1 to 5 in each of the two tests.
Students who miss a test due to illness (with a medical certificate presented) will be provided with a retake opportunity within one week.

Requirements for the signature
The course of the subject will not be recognized in case of more than 3 absences during the semester.

The semester ends with an oral terminal examination.
Students draw from two sets of topics, so the grade is based on two parts. The partial grades are offered in advance if marks of 3, 4 or 5 have been obtained at each of the two evaluations held during the term. The grade of the first oral midterm (better than 2) is counted as the first, and that of the second oral midterm (better than 2) is counted as the second partial grade. Midterm marks worse than 3 do not yield such exemptions, and the student must draw a topic from the given set at the terminal exam.

What to learn for the terminal examination?
– The material of all lectures during the semester.
– Medical Pathobiochemistry (eds. Mandl J and Machovich R) ISBN: 978 963 226 407 3
– Molecular Biology of the Cell (Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K and Walter P) ISBN: 978-0815341055


Location: Rooms 418 (Mondays) and 320 (Thursdays), ITK building (Práter u. 50/A)
Duration: 2 x 45 min (Mondays and Thursdays 9:15 – 11:00)

14 March9:15ITK 418Basics of molecular biologyCsala
27 March9:15ITK 320DNA replicationZámbó
311 March9:15ITK 418DNA damage, mutation, repairZámbó
414 March9:15ITK 320TranscriptionCsala
518 March9:15ITK 418RNA processingCsala
621 March9:15ITK 320Control of gene expression at mRNA levelCsala
725 March9:15ITK 418TranslationMészáros
828 March--- Maundy Thursday ---
91 April--- Easter ---
104 April9:15ITK 320Post-translational modificationsMészáros
118 April9:15ITK 418Control of translationMészáros
1315 April9:15ITK 418Intracellular protein traffickingMészáros
1418 April9:15ITK 320Protein degradation (proteasome and autophagy)Mészáros
1522 April9:15ITK 418Vesicular transport, endocytosis, exocytosisKereszturi
1625 April9:15ITK 320Molecular biology of virusesCsala
1729 April9:15ITK 418Control of cell cycle ICsala
182 May9:15ITK 320Control of cell cycle IICsala
196 May9:15ITK 418Apoptosis ICsala
209 May9:15ITK 320Apoptosis IICsala
2113 May9:15ITK 418Molecular background of cancerCsala
2216 May9:15ITK 320Genetic polymorphism and human diseasesKereszturi
2320 May--- Whit Monday ---

Midterm 1

Topics for the 1st midterm

  1. Structure of DNA in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, histones, topoisomerism
  2. Proteins involved in prokaryotic DNA replication
  3. Initiation of replication and the replication fork
  4. Special features of eukaryotic DNA replication, the telomerase
  5. The most important types of DNA lesion, DNA damage and mutation
  6. Formation and repair of “mismatch damage”
  7. Ways to repair pyrimidine (Thymine) dimer
  8. Structure and function of E. coli RNA polymerase
  9. Initiation and termination of transcription in prokaryotic cells
  10. Initiation and termination of transcription in eukaryotic cells
  11. Processing of mRNA and the structure of mature mRNA
  12. Regulation of transcription in prokaryotes
  13. Regulation of transcription in eukaryotes
  14. Mechanisms for influencing eukaryotic gene expression (other than transcriptional control)
  15. Structure and function of RNAs involved in translation
  16. Mechanism of aminoacyl-tRNA formation
  17. Structure and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes
  18. Initiation of translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  19. Elongation and termination of translation
  20. Post-translational modifications and functional consequences
  21. Possible mechanisms for the control of translation

Midterm 2

Topics for the 2nd midterm

  1. Eukaryotic cell organelles and the nuclear protein transport
  2. Protein transport to mitochondria and the ER
  3. Vesicular transport between the organelles, the role of SNARE proteins and Rab proteins
  4. Vesicular transport, endocytosis and exocytosis, the role of coat-forming proteins
  5. Intracellular proteolysis, types and mechanisms of autophagy
  6. Intracellular proteolysis, ubiquitination, proteasome
  7. Grouping of animal viruses according to their replication mechanism, effect of double-stranded RNA in the eukaryotic cells
  8. Replication cycle of retroviruses, acutely transforming retroviruses
  9. Genetic background of human diseases, methods for allele analysis
  10. The eukaryotic cell division cycle – phases and checkpoints
  11. Cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases and their inhibitors
  12. Control of cell cycle in G1 and S phases
  13. Control of cell cycle in G2 and M phases
  14. Handling DNA injuries and ongoing replication during the cell cycle
  15. Structure and function of apoptosome, DISC, and PIDDosome
  16. Types of Bcl-2 proteins and their role in apoptosis pathways of different origin
  17. Properties of caspases and their role in regulating apoptosis
  18. Components of the “survival signal” and its connection with the regulatory proteins of apoptosis
  19. The endoplasmic reticulum stress and the UPR
  20. Control of the level and activity of p53 protein
  21. Effects of p53 protein on cell cycle and apoptosis
  22. The concept of tumor suppressor genes, the functions of some representative tumor suppressor proteins
  23. Genetic modifications leading to tumor cell formation


Lecture slides are available here.

The passwords to download pages can be obtained from the laboratory teachers personally.