Pázmány Péter Catholic University
Faculty of Information Technology and Bionics

Molecular biology subject
(5 credit points, terminal examination, Prof. Miklós Csala; P-ITBIO-0046)

Lecturers: Prof. Miklós Csala , Dr. Éva Kereszturi, Dr. Tamás Mészáros, Dr. Veronika Zámbó
Teaching secretary: Dr. Veronika Zámbó
2022/2023 Spring semester


The knowledge to be attained
The storage, maintenance and expression of genetic information, as well as their molecular mechanisms are fundamental topics of the course. DNA replication, DNA damage and repair, RNA synthesis and processing, protein synthesis, maturation and targeting, and different ways of regulation of gene expression are discussed. Regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis, in the light of the molecular background of tumor development is also part of the subject. Some of the lectures provide insights into molecular biology research.

Midterm tests and Students’ presentation
Two oral midterm examinations are held during the semester. In each occasion, a random topic should be picked from the list and answered verbally. The student’s performance is evaluated from 1 to 5 in each of the two tests.
Students who miss a test due to illness (with a medical certificate presented) will be provided with a retake opportunity within one week.

Requirements for the signature
The course of the subject will not be recognized in case of more than 3 absences during the semester.

The semester ends with an oral terminal examination.
Students draw from two sets of topics, so the grade is based on two parts. The partial grades are offered in advance if marks of 3, 4 or 5 have been obtained at each of the two evaluations held during the term. The grade of the first oral midterm (better than 2) is counted as the first, and that of the second oral midterm (better than 2) is counted as the second partial grade. Midterm marks worse than 3 do not yield such exemptions, and the student must draw a topic from the given set at the terminal exam.

What to learn for the terminal examination?
– The material of all lectures during the semester.
– Medical Pathobiochemistry (eds. Mandl J and Machovich R) ISBN: 978 963 226 407 3
– Molecular Biology of the Cell (Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K and Walter P) ISBN: 978-0815341055


Location: Room 418, ITK building (Práter u. 50/A)
Duration: 2 x 45 min (Mondays 9:15 – 11:00 & Thursdays 9:15 – 11:00)

16 March09:15Basics of molecular biologyCsala
29 March09:15DNA replicationZámbó
313 March09:15DNA damage, mutation, repairZámbó
416 March09:15TranscriptionCsala
520 March09:15RNA processingCsala
623 March09:15Control of gene expression at mRNA levelCsala
727 March09:15TranslationMészáros
830 March09:15Post-translational modificationsMészáros
93 April09:15Control of translationMészáros
106 April--- Maundy Thursday ---
1110 April--- Easter ---
1213 April09:15ORAL MIDTERM I
1317 April09:15Intracellular protein traffickingMészáros
1420 April09:15Protein degradation (proteasome and autophagy)Mészáros
1524 April09:15Vesicular transport, endocytosis, exocytosisKereszturi
1627 April09:15Molecular biology of virusesCsala
171 May--- International Workers' Day ---
184 May09:15Control of cell cycle ICsala
198 May09:15Control of cell cycle IICsala
2011 May09:15Apoptosis ICsala
2115 May09:15Apoptosis IICsala
2218 May09:15Molecular background of cancerCsala
2322 May09:15Genetic polymorphysm and human diseasesKereszturi
2425 May -> postponed to 1 June, 13:3009:15 -> 13:30ORAL MIDTERM II

Midterm 1

Topics for the 1st midterm

  1. Structure of DNA in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, histones, topoisomerism
  2. Proteins involved in prokaryotic DNA replication
  3. Initiation of replication and the replication fork
  4. Special features of eukaryotic DNA replication, the telomerase
  5. The most important types of DNA lesion, DNA damage and mutation
  6. Formation and repair of “mismatch damage”
  7. Ways to repair pyrimidine (Thymine) dimer
  8. Structure and function of E. coli RNA polymerase
  9. Initiation and termination of transcription in prokaryotic cells
  10. Initiation and termination of transcription in eukaryotic cells
  11. Processing of mRNA and the structure of mature mRNA
  12. Regulation of transcription in prokaryotes
  13. Regulation of transcription in eukaryotes
  14. Mechanisms for influencing eukaryotic gene expression (other than transcriptional control)
  15. Structure and function of RNAs involved in translation
  16. Mechanism of aminoacyl-tRNA formation
  17. Structure and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes
  18. Initiation of translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  19. Elongation and termination of translation
  20. Post-translational modifications and functional consequences
  21. Possible mechanisms for the control of translation

Midterm 2

Topics for the 2nd midterm

  1. Eukaryotic cell organelles and the nuclear protein transport
  2. Protein transport to mitochondria and the ER
  3. Vesicular transport between the organelles, the role of SNARE proteins and Rab proteins
  4. Vesicular transport, endocytosis and exocytosis, the role of coat-forming proteins
  5. Intracellular proteolysis, types and mechanisms of autophagy
  6. Intracellular proteolysis, ubiquitination, proteasome
  7. Grouping of animal viruses according to their replication mechanism, effect of double-stranded RNA in the eukaryotic cells
  8. Replication cycle of retroviruses, acutely transforming retroviruses
  9. Genetic background of human diseases, methods for allele analysis
  10. The eukaryotic cell division cycle – phases and checkpoints
  11. Cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases and their inhibitors
  12. Control of cell cycle in G1 and S phases
  13. Control of cell cycle in G2 and M phases
  14. Handling DNA injuries and ongoing replication during the cell cycle
  15. Structure and function of apoptosome, DISC, and PIDDosome
  16. Types of Bcl-2 proteins and their role in apoptosis pathways of different origin
  17. Properties of caspases and their role in regulating apoptosis
  18. Components of the “survival signal” and its connection with the regulatory proteins of apoptosis
  19. The endoplasmic reticulum stress and the UPR
  20. Control of the level and activity of p53 protein
  21. Effects of p53 protein on cell cycle and apoptosis
  22. The concept of tumor suppressor genes, the functions of some representative tumor suppressor proteins
  23. Genetic modifications leading to tumor cell formation


Lecture slides are available here.

The passwords to download pages can be obtained from the laboratory teachers personally.