Pázmány Péter Catholic University
Faculty of Information Technology and Bionics
Molecular biology subject
(6 credit points, terminal examination, Prof. Miklós Csala; P-ITOBA-0002)
Lectures will be delivered online on Zoom platform. Invitation will be emailed to the students registered to the subject. As Zoom video conference is interactive, students also have the opportunity to ask the lecturers live or written questions.
Mid-term oral examinations will also be held on Zoom interface (in the form of bilateral discussions).
The knowledge to be attained
The storage, maintenance and expression of genetic information, as well as their molecular mechanisms are fundamental topics of the course. DNA replication, DNA damage and repair, RNA synthesis and processing, protein synthesis, maturation and targeting, and different ways of regulation of gene expression are discussed. Regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis, in the light of the molecular background of tumor development is also part of the subject. Some of the lectures provide insights into molecular biology research.
Midterm tests and Students’ presentation
There are 3 evaluations during the semester.
The first two occasions (midterm tests) are oral examinations, at which a topic should be picked from the list and answered verbally. The third occasion is the Students’ presentation on selected articles. The student’s performance is evaluated from 1 to 5 in each of the three tests.
Students who miss a test due to illness (with a medical certificate presented) will be provided with a retake opportunity within one week.
Requirements for the signature
The course of the subject will not be recognized in case of more than 3 absences during the semester.
The semester ends with an oral terminal examination.
Students draw from two sets of topics, so the grade is based on two parts. The partial grades are offered in advance if marks of 3, 4 or 5 have been obtained at each of the three evaluations held during the term. Therefore, if the grade of the Students’ presentation is at least 3, then the grade of the first oral midterm (better than 2) is counted as the first, and that of the second oral midterm (better than 2) is counted as the second partial grade. Midterm marks worse than 3 do not yield such exemptions, and the student must draw a topic from the given set at the terminal exam. In case of a mark worse than 3 at the Students’ presentation, no partial grade is offered at the terminal exam, regardless of the performance at the midterm tests, i.e., the student has to answer a question from each set in the exam.
What to learn for the terminal examination?
– The material of all lectures during the semester.
– Medical Pathobiochemistry (eds. Mandl J and Machovich R) ISBN: 978 963 226 407 3
– Molecular Biology of the Cell (Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K and Walter P) ISBN: 978-0815341055
Duration: 2 x 45 min (Mondays 9:15-11:00 & Wednesdays 8:15-10:00)
|1||8 February||09:15||Basics of molecular biology||Csala / Zámbó|
|2||10 February||08:15||DNA replication||Zámbó|
|3||15 February||09:15||DNA damage, mutation, repair||Zámbó|
|5||22 February||09:15||RNA processing||Csala|
|6||24 February||08:15||Control of gene expression at mRNA level||Csala|
|8||3 March||08:15||Intracellular protein trafficking||Mészáros|
|9||8 March||09:15||Post-translational modifications||Mészáros|
|10||10 March||08:15||Control of translation||Mészáros|
|11||17 March||08:15||ORAL MIDTERM I|
|12||22 March||09:15||Protein degradation (proteasome and autophagy)||Mészáros|
|13||24 March||08:15||Methods of protein generation||Mészáros|
|14||12 April||09:15||Studies on protein-protein interactions||Mészáros|
|15||14 April||08:15||Control of cell cycle I||Csala|
|16||19 April||09:15||Control of cell cycle II||Csala|
|17||21 April||08:15||Apoptosis I||Csala|
|18||26 April||09:15||Apoptosis II||Csala|
|19||28 April||08:15||Molecular background of cancer I||Csala|
|20||3 May||09:15||Molecular background of cancer II||Csala|
|21||5 May||08:15||Molecular biology of viruses||Csala|
|22||10 May||09:15||ORAL MIDTERM II|
|23||12 May||08:15||Students' presentations and consultation|
Topics for the 1st midterm
- Structure of DNA in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, histones, topoisomerism
- Proteins involved in prokaryotic DNA replication
- Initiation of replication and the replication fork
- Special features of eukaryotic DNA replication, the telomerase
- The most important types of DNA lesion, DNA damage and mutation
- Formation and repair of “mismatch damage”
- Ways to repair pyrimidine (Thymine) dimer
- Structure and function of E. coli RNA polymerase
- Initiation and termination of transcription in prokaryotic cells
- Initiation and termination of transcription in eukaryotic cells
- Processing of mRNA and the structure of mature mRNA
- Regulation of transcription in prokaryotes
- Regulation of transcription in eukaryotes
- Mechanisms for influencing eukaryotic gene expression (other than transcriptional control)
- Structure and function of RNAs involved in translation
- Mechanism of aminoacyl-tRNA formation
- Structure and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes
- Initiation of translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
- Elongation and termination of translation
- Post-translational modifications and functional consequences
- Eucaryotic cell organelles and the nuclear protein transport
- Protein transport to mitochondria and the ER
- Vesicular protein transport
- Possible mechanisms for the control of translation
Topics for the 2nd midterm
- The eukaryotic cell division cycle – phases and checkpoints
- Cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases and their inhibitors
- Control of cell cycle in G1 and S phases
- Control of cell cycle in G2 and M phases
- Handling DNA injuries and ongoing replication during the cell cycle
- Structure and function of apoptosome, DISC, and PIDDosome
- Types of Bcl-2 proteins and their role in apoptosis pathways of different origin
- Properties of caspases and their role in regulating apoptosis
- Components of the “survival signal” and its connection with the regulatory proteins of apoptosis
- The endoplasmic reticulum stress and the UPR
- Control of the level and activity of p53 protein
- Effects of p53 protein on cell cycle and apoptosis
- The concept of tumor suppressor genes, the functions of some representative tumor suppressor proteins
- Genetic modifications leading to tumor cell formation
- Grouping of animal viruses according to their replication mechanism, effect of double-stranded RNA in the eukaryotic cells
- Replication cycle of retroviruses, acutely transforming retroviruses
- Intracellular proteolysis, ubiquitination, proteasome
- Intracellular proteolysis, types and mechanisms of autophagy
- Protein production by using prokaryotic organisms
- Characteristics of eukaryotic and in vitro protein production systems
- The yeast two-hybrid system
- Fluorescence-based studies on protein-protein interactions
Lecture slides are available here.
The passwords to download pages can be obtained from the laboratory teachers personally.