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Factor structure of the de Jong Gierveld scale for loneliness: shortened 6-item version 
(DGJLS-6). A systematic review
Laura Kenny, Philip Hyland, Marylene Cloitre & Mark ShevlinContact / Kontakt / Kapcsolat
EJMH Vol 18 (2023), e0001, 1-12.; https://doi.org/10.5708/EJMH.18.2023.0001
Received: 11 January 2022; Accepted: 16 August 2022; Online: 25 January 2023
Section: Review Articles
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Abstract

Introduction: Loneliness is linked to negative physical and mental health outcomes. Therefore, it is important to employ reliable and valid screening measures for early detection and treatment. A widely used scale for assessing loneliness is the shortened six-item Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale (DJGLS-6).

Aims: To review and evaluate the factor structure of the DJGLS-6.

Methods: Study 1 was a systematic review. To examine the factor structure of the DJGLS-6, peer-reviewed studies were reviewed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Study 2 tested the factor analytic models found in Study 1. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed using data from a nationally representative sample of adults to assess the latent structure of the six-item scale.

Results: In Study 1, findings from the two papers reviewed suggested that the scale measures two correlated dimensions: social and emotional loneliness. This finding was consistent with the results of Study 2. However, the fit statistics for the one and two-factor CFA models were not acceptable. Modification indices indicated that adding a cross-factor loading to allow item 2 (“I miss having people around”) of the social loneliness factor, to load on both the emotional and social factor, to load on both the emotional and social factors would significantly improve the fit of the model.

Conclusions: The analysis failed to support previous findings concerning the robustness of the subscales. We recommend performing future evaluations of the scale and for the authors to consider changing item 2 accordingly.

Keywords

loneliness; systematic review; factor structure; confirmatory factor analysis; de Jong Gierveld scale for loneliness

Corresponding author

Mark Shevlin

Ulster University, School of Psychology, Coleraine, Northern Ireland

m.shevlin@ulster.ac.uk

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6262-5223

Co-authors

Laura Kenny: Ulster University, School of Psychology, Coleraine, Northern Ireland

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9061-5804

Philip Hyland: Maynooth University, Department of Psychology, Kildare, Ireland

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9574-7128

Marylene Cloitre: National Center for PTSD, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health CareSystem, Palo Alto, CA, USA & School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, USA School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, USA

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8029-1570

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