Development and Validation Regarding the Lithuanian Version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS-X)
Karolina PETRAŠKAITĖContact / Kontakt / Kapcsolat & Neringa GRIGUTYTĖ
EJMH Vol 17 Issue 3 (2022) 52-64;
Received: 20 April 2021; Accepted: 15 August 2022; Online: 13 December 2022
Section: Research Papers
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Introduction: The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS-X), a widely used and accepted instrument developed to assess multidimensional emotional experience, is used in various social and clinical settings. It has an underlying hierarchical structure of the higher order for the positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA), and the lower order discrete affect scales that describe specific emotions; however, very little is known about the psychometric properties that this version of the instrument has.

Aims: This study aims to investigate the psychometric properties in the Lithuanian version of PANAS-X, including the analysis for the factor structure of the higher and lower order scales, reliability, and validity characteristics.

Methods: The study includes a demographically representative Lithuanian sample (N = 322, with an average age of 37.34, SD = 12.50). For the psychometric evaluation of the PANAS-X, researchers performed item analysis, reliability, convergent-discriminant validity, and confirmatory factor analysis.

Results: The confirmatory factor analysis results support the basic structure of the PANAS-X PA, NA, and the discrete affect scales, although some scales were modified according to the item characteristics. The convergent validity is confirmed by the relations of the PA and NA as well as the discrete affect scales to the related constructs, which include personality traits, general, and psychological well-being.

Conclusions: The Lithuanian version of PANAS-X can be considered a reliable and valid instrument for structuring positive, negative, and specific emotional experiences.


positive and negative affect, emotions, PANAS-X, psychometric properties, Lithuanian adaptation

Corresponding author


Vilnius University, Institute of Psychology, Lithuania



Vilnius University, Institute of Psychology, Lithuania

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