The Mental Health Continuum-Short Form in Organisational Contexts: 
Factorial Validity, Invariance, and Internal Consistency
Llewellyn Ellardus van Zyl Contact / Kontakt / Kapcsolat,  & Chantal OLCKERS
EJMH Vol 14 Issue 2 (2019) 230-259;
Received: 16 November 2018; accepted: 15 June 2019; online date: 10 December 2019
Section: Research Papers
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The study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the MHC-SF within selected organisational contexts. Specifically, the aim was to determine the factorial validity, measurement invariance, and reliability of the instrument for South African organisations. A cross-sectional online survey-based research design was employed, coupled with a convenience sampling strategy (= 624). The results showed that the original three-dimensional factor structure of the MHC-SF fitted the data the best. Items loaded statistically significantly on all three subscales (emotional, psychological, social wellbeing). Further, the scale showed full configure, convergent and metric invariance between males and females. However, invariance was not established in either age cohorts, language groups, or marital status. The instrument proved to be reliable at both a lower (Cronbach Alpha) and upper level (Composite reliability) limit within South African organisational contexts.


Measurement Invariance, Mental Health Continuum Short Form, Mental Wellbeing, Psychometric properties

Corresponding author

Dr. Llewellyn Ellardus van ZYL
Department of Human Performance Management
University of Eindhoven
Eindhoven, the Netherlands;
Optentia Research Focus Area
North-West University (VTC)
Vanderbijlpark, South Africa;

Department of Human Resource Management
University of Twente, the Netherlands
Institut für Psychologie
Goethe University
Frankfurt am Main, Germany


Department of Human Resource Management
University of Pretoria, Pretoria
South Africa