Topics for the final exam

1. The history of oral implantology. The development of implants, implant-systems.

2. The classification of dental implants according to the anatomic localization. Endosteal implants.

3. The indications, contraindications of implant treatment.

4. Essential diagnostics of oral implants. X-ray diagnosis. Modell analyzis. Surgical templates.

5. Biomaterials, biocompatibility. Osseointegration, its meaning and significance in oral implantology.

6. The role of surface topography in the osseointegration. Procedures altering the surface chemistry and morphology.

7. The morphology and clinical importance of gingival seal around implants.

8. The biomechanics of implant restorations: The biomechanical role of the implant.

9. The biomechanics of implant restorations: The biomechanical role of the connection betwen implant and prosthetic superstructure.

10. The planning of implant rehabilitations.

11. General surgical considerations of implant placement. The timing of implantation.

12. Implant placement and the different loading protocols.

13. The esthetic aspects of implant surgery.

14. The biology of bone regeneration.

15. The therapeutical possibilities of bone replacement. Bone substitutes. Guided Bone Regeneration /GBR/.

16. Bone grafting surgical procedures without bone transplantation.

17. The concept of „osteoinduction” in bone replacement. Surgical procedures.

18. Bone transplantation in implant surgery. Alveolar-distraction procedure.

19. The types of prosthetic restorations on implants. Advantages, disadvantages of different solutions.
20. The types of prosthetic abutments on implants. Impression techniques in implant prosthodontics.

21. Brånemark, Replace implant systems.

22. ITI-Straumann implant system.

23. Single tooth replacement by implant. Surgical and prosthetic considerations.

24. Implant restorations in edentulous free-end situations. Surgical and prosthetic considerations.

25. Implant rehabilitations in fully edentulous jaws. Surgical and prosthetic considerations.

26. The complications of implant treatment.
Early: surgical complications
Late: biological, mechanical complications

27. Periodontological considerations of implant treatment.

28. Practical consideration of implant therapy. Key implant positions.

29. Variations of sinus lift technics, difficulties and complications.

30. Explain the process of guided surgery in Implantology!


Short questions

1. What were the trends, and clinical trials with implants prior to the modern implantology

2. What was the first biocompatibile alloy?

3. What was the concept of subperiosteal implants?

4. What were the causes of failure of subperiosteal implants?

5. Who was the developer of the blade-vent implants?

6. What was the concept of „pseudo-parodontium” in oral implantology?

7. Who discovered, and published first the concept of „osseointegration”?

8. Since when do we reckon the modern implantology?

9. What were the stages of the developement of moder implantology?

10. What is the meaning of an implant system?

11. What is the intramucosal insert?

12. What is the transmandibular implant?

13. What is the transdental implant?

14. How can we classify the endosteal implants?

15. What is the main indication of blade-type implants?

16. Why the blade-vent implants are not used generally today in the clinical practice?

17. What are the advantages of rotation-symmetric /root-form/ implants?

18. What type of rotation-symmetric implants do you know?

19. How can you classify the screw-type implants?

20. Which are the major indications of implant placement?

21. Which teeth are most often replaced with implants?

22. How can contraindications be classified?

23. How does diabetes influence our implant activities?

24. Which type of osteoporosis may be a contraindication of implant placement?

25. How do smoking, alcoholism and drug abuse influence osseointegration?

26. What local contraindications may hinder implant placement?

27. What do you know about titanium metallosis and allergy?

28. What is the description of bone quality class D1 and what are the locations for it on the jaws?

29. What is the description of bone quality class D2 and what are the locations for it on the jaws?

30. What is the description of bone quality class D3 and what are the locations for it on the jaws?

31. What is the description of bone quality class D4 and what are the locations for it on the jaws?

32. Why do we need panoramic x-ray and template with metal sphere?

33. What are the situations when computer tomography is recommended?

34. Why do we have to make surgical template?

35. What can we examine using model analysis?

36. What are the possible times of implant placement after tooth-loss?

37. What are the advantages, disadvantages of immediate implantation?

38. What are the advantages, disadvantages of delayed implantation?

39. What is the difference regarding the treatment plan, between the early and late implantation?

40. What are the advantages, disadvantages of the late implantation?

41. Regarding the way of healing, what kind of surgical protocols do you know?

42. What are the surgical steps of implant placement?

43. What is the surgically positioned minimal distance recommended between the implants, and the implant-tooth?

44. What is the purpose of the second operation in the two-stage protocol?
45. How can you compare the different surgical protocols regarding the soft tissue healing around implants?

46. What are the essential conditions of success of the implantation?

47. What is the „biocompatibility”?

48. What is the „biomechanical funtional ability”?

49. What are the biotolerant materials?

50. What are the bioinert materials?

51. What are the bioactive materials?

52. Which is the most widely used titanium alloy?

53. What is the „osseointegration”?

54. What are the conditions of the development of osseointegration?

55. What are the bioactive materials used for?

56. What about the technical possibilities of the surgical exposure of implants?

57. What are the morphologic parts of the gingival seal around implants?

58. What is the „biologic width”?

59. What are the possible clinical significances of the biologic width?

60. What is the progressive osseointegration?

61. What about the clinical significance of progressive osseointegration?

62. What are the conditions of long term maintenance of osseointegration?

63. Which factors are influencing the assumption of load of oral implants?

64. When can be loaded the implants, after insertion?

65. What are the advantages and disadvantages of immediate loading?

66. What is the value of „micromotion” tolerated by the bone?

67. Which factors are influencing the immediate loading of endosteal implants?

68. What is the primary stability of implants, and what is the importance of it?

69. What does mean the early loading of endosteal implants?
70. Why do not we already use the alumina implants?

71. How about the ranking order of load-bearing characters of implants, according to their forms?

72. What are the important physical elements and their description in biomechanics?

73. Which investigative methods are useful in clinical practice?

74. What are the most important biomechanical principles of implantology?

75. What is the importance of the mechanical stress distribution in periimplant bone?

76. What is the difference between natural teeth and implants in view of biomechanical behaviour?

77. What is the role of bending moment, and what are the possibilities to decrease it?

78. How can implant geometry influence long-term implant success?

79. What theories are the stress breakers based on? What is the function and clinical importance of stress breakers?

80. What is the biomechanical difference between cylindrical and screw type implants?

81. What do the terms reactive and therapeutic biomechanics mean?

82. Why is searching for an ’ideal morphology’ important?

83. What does micro and macro porosity mean?

84. What parameters characterise a given surface morphology?

85. What does Bone-Implant Contact (BIC) mean?

86. What do you know about the Titanium Plasma Spray method?

87. What do you know about sandblasting?

88. What do you know about laser surface modification?

89. What do you know about the SLA?

90. Which methods may be applied to study the success of surface modification?

91. What is the surgical and prosthetic rule of healing abutments?

92. What is characteristic of the one-piece abutment?

93. How to provide the rotation stability of implant abutments?
94. How can be the divergence of implants prosthetically corrected?

95. What is characteristic of the zirconia abutments?

96. What means the direct impression technique?

97. What means the indirect impression technique?

98. What is the difference between impression techniques with closed or open tray?

99. What about the nomenclature of implant prosthesis?

100. What are the types of fixed implant restorations?

101. What are the advantages of cemented implant prosthesis?

102. What are the disadvantages of cemented implant prosthesis?

103. What are the advantages of screw-retained implant prosthesis?

104. What are the disadvantages of screw-retained implant prosthesis?

105. What are the types of removable implant restorations?

106. What are the roles of osteoblasts?

107. What is the definition of growth factors?

108. What kind of clinical application possibilities do we know of growth factors?

109. Which steps of bone neoformation can we differentate?

110. What is the definition of remodeling?

111. What is the role of gene therapy in bone replacement?

112. What are the surgical possibilities of bone replacement?

113. What is the osteoconduction?

114. When were used first the bone substitutes?

115. Which are the important clinical characteristics of bone subtitutes?

116. Which are the most frequently used bone substitutes?

117. Which are the important two factors, influencing the clinical success of bone

118. What is the basic principle of Guided Bone Regeneration?
119. What kind of membranes used in Guided Bone Regeneration?

120. What is the surgical basic of lateral augmentation procedure?

121. What are the limitations of the use of bone substitutes?

122. What is the osteoinduction?

123. What is the biological role of bone morphogenetic proteins /BMPs/?

124. Which are the harvesting sites of bone chips?

125. How about the laboratory processing of platelet rich plasma /PRP/?

126. What is the surgical principle of bone-splitting?

127. What is the sinus-lift surgical procedure, and what are the technical

128. The coincidence of implantation and sinus-lift procedure?

129. What seems to be the future of bone replacement?

130. Which are the surgical stages of completing esthetic implant restorations?

131. How about the evaluation of esthetic risk assesment?

132. What is the clinical, esthetic significance of determination of the smile line?

133. What are the typical forms of gingival outline?

134. Which are the biotypes of the periodontium?

135. What is the optimal placement of implants in vertical and oro-vestibular

136. What is the determining factor of the form of papilla, adjacent to implants?

137. What is the surgical principle of gingiva excision over implants?

138. What is the surgical principle of apically positioned flap?

139. What about the surgical papilla reconstruction technique?

140. What is the surgical principle of connective tissue grafting?

141. What are the guidelines of planning implantation therapy by periodontal
compromised patients?
142. How can we prevent teeth from overloading?
143. What are considered to be as essentials of the esthetic implantation?
144. From which point of view is the immediate implantation advantageous?
145. What kind of methods are used to preserve interdental or interimplant papilla?
146. What kind of soft tissue augmentation procedures are used?
147. What are the reasons for overloading implants?
148. What is the usual indication of completing crown on implant?
149. What type of abutments are used for crown?
150. How the anatomic abutments look like?
151. What is the computer aided individual abutment?
152. What types of retentions of implant supported crown are used?
153. What about the role of impression copings?
154. What type of impression technique is used for crown completion?
155. What kind of implant analogs are used for laboratory work?
156. What about the treatment options of partial tooth loss in conventional
prosthetic and implant therapy?

157. What is the „tripodial” implant placement?

158. What are the advantages and disadvantages of implant-tooth supported fixed
partial denture?

159. What are the advantages of implant supported fixed partial denture?

160. What about the conditions of completing FPD in totally edentulous jaws?

161. What are the advantages and disadvantages of fixed hybrid prosthesis in totally
edentulous jaws?

162. What is the meaning of the mesio-structure in implant prosthodontics?

163. What is the role of mesio-structure /bar-construction/ in the distribution of
masticatory forces?

164. What about the cross-sections of bar-constructions?

165. What is the O-ring attachment, and what about the prosthetic indications?

166. What is the Locator abutment?

167. What are the main characteristics of the ITI-Straumann system?

168. What is the main difference in the form of the Narrow Neck Implant,
comparing to the other Straumann ones?

169. What is the main indication of the TE implant?

170. What means the SLActive implant surface?

171. What is a new concept in the form of Straumann implants?

172. How about the connection of prosthetic abutments to the Straumann implants?

173. What were the stages of development of the Braenemark implant system?

174. What does the “TiUnite surface” mean? What was the concept behind?

175. What are the main characteristics of the Replace Select system?

176. What kind of new implant forms are developed recently in Branemark system?

177. What does Nobel Guide mean?

178. What is subcrestal implant placement?

179. What is platform shifting /switching/?

180. The term, etiology and therapy of mucositis?

181. What does mean periimplantitis?

182. What are the therapeutical possibilities of periimplantitis?

183. What is the base of regenerative therapy of periimplantitis?

184. What are the most frequent mechanical complications?

185. What is the success ratio of the sinus lift surgery?

186. What kind of technical variations do you know for sinus lift?

187. What are the advantages and disadvantages of sinus lift surgery with lateral

188. What is the indication and how does the procedure look like by the sinus lift
with crestal exploration?

189. What are the complications and difficulties of sinus lift surgery?
190. What is the meaning and importance of platform switching?
191. How do we use conical reamer?
192. Describe the features of tapered implant-abutment connection.
193. What are the most important features of Syncone system and when is it used?
194. What is the importance of transfer key?
195. Which are the main aspect of the implant plan ( implant size and position)?

196. Which diagnostic tools are used in implantology, and what are the features of them?

197. What is the ball-bearing template?

198. Which are the main parts of guide-template?

199. On what can be the guide template anchored, advantages – disadvantages?

200. What are the techniques of guide-template fabrication, advantages – disadvantages?

201. Explain shematic the steps of Nobel Guide system!