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Exam questions

Semi-final exam questions: 2 topics (A and B)

1 topic: A/01-A/63 (general pathology) Sign with the letter “A”
1 topic: B/01-B/43 (oncology and cardiology). Sign with the letter “B”
 

 

Final exam questions: 3 topics (A and B and C)

1 topic:
1 topic:
1 topic: 

 

 

 

General pathology exam questions - 1st SemesterSystematic pathology exam questions - 2nd Semester
NECROSIS, APOPTOSIS
A/01. Causes, morphology and mechanism of cell necrosis
A/02. Reperfusion injury
A/03. Mechanisms of apoptosis and its pathological characteristics
A/04. Coagulative necrosis and its organ manifestation
A/05. Colliquative necrosis and its organ manifestation
A/06. Hemorrhagic infarction and its organ manifestation
A/07. Fat, caseous and fibrinoid necrosis and its organ manifestation
A/08. Acute myocardial infarction
A/09. Cerebral infarction
PATHOLOGY OF HEMATOPOETIC AND LYMPHOID SYSTEM
C/1. Diagnostic methods of hematology (biopsy, flow cytometry, histochemical, cytogenetic, molecular diagnosis)
C/2. Anemias of dimished erythropoesis
C/3. Anemia of blodd loss
C/4. Non-neoplastic disorders of myeloid and lymphoid system
C/5. CML and chronic myelofibrosis
C/6. Polycythemia vera, Essential thrombocythaemia
C/7. Disorders that affect the spleen and thymus
C/8. Myelodysplastic syndromes
C/9. Acute myelogenous leukemia
C/10. Precurzor T- and B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma
C/11. CLL and hairy cell leukemia
C/12. Multiple myeloma and related plasma cell disorders
C/13. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma
C/14. Mature T-cell and NK-cell lymphomas
C/15. Mycosis fungoides, peripherial T-cell lymphoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma
C/16. Hodgkin lymphoma
C/17. Disorders that cause splenomegaly
REVERSIBILE CELL INJURY, PATHOLOGIC ACCUMLATION, PIGMENTS, CALCIFICATION
A/10. Reversible cell injury, types of degeneration and its organ manifestation
A/11. Types of fatty degeneration and its organ manifestation
A/12. Atherosclerosis
A/13. Amyloidosis
A/14. Cystic fibrosis
A/15. Hyaline accumulation and its organ manifestation
A/16. Anthracosis, lipofuscin and hemosidern accumulation
A/17. Pathological changes of skin melanocytes
A/18. Dystrophic calcification and its organ manifestation
A/19. Metastatic calcification and its organ manifestation
A/20. Stone formation; kidney and gallbladder stones
PATHOLOGY OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT
C/18. Atelectasis and acute respiratory disterss syndrome
C/19. Obstructive lung diseases- bronchial asthma and emphysema
C/20. Obstructive lung diseases- chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis
C/21. Chronic interstitial (restrivtive) lung diseases
C/22. Pulmonary diseases of vascular origin - pulmonary embolism, hemorrhage, and infarction
C/23. Pulmonary hypertension
C/24. Pulmonary infections (except tuberculosis)
C/25. Granulomatous diseases of lung
C/26. Benign and metastatic tumors of lung
C/27. Malignant lung tumors
C/28. Pathology of pleura
C/29. Lesions of the upper respiratory tract
C/30. Tumors of nasal passages, nasopharynx and larynx
CELLULAR ADAPTATION TO STRESS
A/21. Pathomechanism of atrophy and hypertrophy, examples
A/22. Myocardial hypertrophy and its clinical forms
A/23. Pathomechanism of hyperplasia, examples
A/24. Pathomechanism of metaplasia and dysplasia, examples
PATHOLOGY OF THE ORAL CAVITY AND THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT
C/31. Pathology of lips, oral cavity and pharynx
C/32. Salivary gland diseases
C/33. Pathology of esophagus
C/34. Gastritis
C/35. Peptic ulcers
C/36. Gastric tumors
C/37. Developmental anomalies and vascular disorders of the GI tract
C/38. Malabsorbtion
C/39. Enterocolitis
C/40. Colonic diverticulosis and bowel obstruction
C/41. Inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis, Chron disease)
C/42. Pathology of the appendix and peritoneum
C/43. Tumors of the Small and Large intestines
HEMODYNAMIC DISORDERS, THROMBOSIS, HEMORRHAGE
A/25. Pathomechanism of cardiac insufficiency
A/26. Congestion and its organ manifestation
A/27. Causes and types of shock
A/28. Causes and types of edema
A/29. Causes and types of thrombosis
A/30. DIC
A/31. Types of emboli
A/32. Types of hemorrhages and their clinical presentation
A/33. Intracranial hemorrhages


PATHOLOGY OF THE LIVER, BILIARY TRACT, AND PANCREAS
C/44. Liver failure
C/45. Cholestatic liver syndromes (PBC, PSC)
C/46. Pathophysiology of Jaundice, defects of bilirubin and bile formation. Cholelithiasis
C/47. Circulatory disorders of liver
C/48. Acute and chronic hepatitis
C/49. Alcohol- and Drug-induced liver disease
C/50. Metabolic and Inherited liver disease
C/51. Liver cirrhosis
C/52. Tumors and tumor-like lesions of liver
C/53. Inflammations and tumors of the biliary tract and gallbladder
C/54. Pancreatitis
C/55. Diabetes mellitus
C/56. Tumors of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas
INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR
A/34. Caracteristics of acute inflammation (cellular events, chemical mediators, systemic effects)
A/35. Morphologic patterns of acute inflammation according to the exudate, organ example
A/36. Chronic inflammation, fibrosis, scarring
A/37. Granulomatous inflammation
A/38. Tissue repair, wound healing
PATHOLOGY OF THE KIDNEY AND ITS COLLECTING SYSTEMS
C/57. End-stages kidney and renal failure
C/58. Developmental abnormalities and Cyctic diseases of the kidney
C/59. Pathogenesis of glomerular diseases
C/60. The Nephritic syndrome
C/61. The Nephrotic syndrome
C/62. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
C/63. Systemic diseases associated glomerular damage
C/64. Vascular diseases of the kidney
C/65. Diabetic nephropathy
C/66. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN)
C/67. Acute and chronic pyelonephritis
C/68. Urolithiasis and urinary outflow obstructions
C/69. Tumors of kidney
C/70. Tumors of the urinary bladder and collecting system
DISEASES OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
A/39. Type I. and Type II. Hypersensitivity reactions and their pathological presentations
A/40. Type III. and Type IV. Hypersensitivity reactions and their pathological presentations
A/41. Rejection of transplants
A/42. Pathomechanism of autoimmume diseases
A/43. Systemic Lupus Erythematodes, Rheumatoid Arthritis
A/44. Sjögren Syndrome, Scleroderma, Polyarteritis Nodosa
A/45. Inherited and Acquired immunodeficiencies
A/46. AIDS
PATHOLOGY OF THE FEMALE GENITAL SYSTEM AND BREAST
C/71. Disease of vulva and vagina
C/72. Pathology of cervix
C/73. Endometritis, endometrial hyperplasia, endometriosis
C/74. Tumors of the endometrium and myometrium
C/75. Non-neoplastic diseases of the ovary and fallopian tubes
C/76. Ovarian tumors
C/77. Pathology of pregnancy
C/78. Benign epithelial lesions and benign tumors of the breast
C/79. Malignant tumors of the breast
GENETIC DISEASES
A/47. Diagnostics of genetic disorders
A/48. Autosomal dominant disorders
A/49. Familial hypercholesterinemia
A/50. Autosomal recessive and X-linked inheritance disorders
A/51. Cytogenetic disorders caused by chromosomal aberrations
A/52. Single-gene disorders with atypical patterns of inheritance
PATHOLOGY OF THE MALE GENITAL SYSTEM
C/80. Diseaeses of penis, scrotum and funiculus spermaticus
C/81. Inflammatory lesions of testis and epididimys, cryptorchidism and testicular atrophy
C/82. Tumors of testis
C/83. Prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia
C/84. Carcinoma of the prostate
C/85. Sexually transmitted diseases
PEDIATRIC DISEASES
A/53. Pathogeneis of congenital anomalies
A/54. Disorders associated with prematurity (IRDS, NEC, Sudden Infant Death)
A/55. Fetal Hydrops
PATHOLOGY OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
C/86. Hypo- and hyperfunction of the hypothalamic-hypophysial system
C/87. Thyreoiditis, hypo- and hyperfunction of thyreoid gland
C/88. Tumors of thyreoid gland
C/89. Pathology of parathyroid glands
C/90. Hypo- and hyperfunction and tumors of adrenal gland
C/91. Multiple endokrine neoplasia (MEN) and carcinoid syndrome
GENERAL PATHOLOGY OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES
A/56. Transmission and Dissemination of microbes
A/57. How microorganisms case disease
A/58. Techniques for identifying infectious agents
A/59. Sepsis and perinatal infections
PATHOLOGY OF THE MUSCULOSCELETAL SYSTEM
C/92. Congenital diseases of bone
C/93. Acquired diseases of bone development (Osteoporosis, Rachitis, Osteomalacia)
C/94. Osteomyelitis. Paget’s disease
C/95. Tumors and tumor-like lesions of the bone
C/96. Degenerative and inflammatory joint diseases
C/97. Muscular atrophy, dystrophies and myositis
C/98. Myogen differentiated soft tissue tumors
C/99. Fibroblast-myofibroblast differentiated soft tissue tumors
C/100. Tumors of adipose tissue
C/101. Soft tissue tumors of uncertain differentiation
ENVIRONMENTAL DISEASES
A/60. Pathology of smoking-related disorders
A/61. Pathology of alcohol-related disorders
A/62. Pathology of medication-related disorders and pharmaceutical side effects
A/63. Pathomechanism of obesity and its consequences; examples
PATHOLOGY OF THE SKIN
C/102. Blistering skin disorders (Pemphigus, Bullous pemphigoid, Dermatitis herpetiformis)
C/103. Inflammatory skin diseases
C/104. Melanocytic tumors
C/105. Non-melanocytic skin tumors
ONCOLOGY AND CARDIOLOGY TOPICS „B”

Neoplasia
B/01. General caracteristics of neoplasms (benign, malignant tumors)
B/02. Classification of neoplasms on histiolgy basis
B/03. Caracteristics of neoplasms rate growth
B/04. Invasion and metastasis of neoplasms
B/05. Promotion mechanisms of oncogenes and role in carcinogenesis
B/06. Inhibitory mechanisms of tumor suppressor genes and role in carcinogenesis
B/07. EGFR, ABL and BCL2 genes and their roles in tumor development
B/08. RB, p53 and APC genes and their roles in tumor development
B/09. BRCA1, BRCA2 and ATM genes and their roles in tumor development
B/10. DNA repair genes and role in carcinogenesis
B/11. Cytogenetic aberrations and the role of telomer in carcinogenesis
B/12. Epigenectic changes (DNA methylaton, MicroRNAs) and role in carcinogenesis
B/13. Inherited cancer syndromes (autosomal dominant, recessive and familiar)
B/14. Viral and microbal oncogenesis
B/15. Chemical and radiation carcinogenesis
B/16. Tumor antigenes
B/17. Tumor immunity and immune surveillance
B/18. Epidemiology of neoplasms
B/19. Caracteristics and morphology of preneoplastic disorders
B/20. Grading and staging of cancer
B/21. Effects of tumor on host (cancer cachexia, paraneoplastic syndromes)
B/22. Tumors of childhood and their characteristics (neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, Wilms tumor)
B/23. Pathological, genetic, immunological and molecular diagnostics of tumors
B/24. Tumor therapy (surgical, radiation, chemo, target molecular and immunotherapy)

PATHOLOGY OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
C/106. Pathology of raised intracranial pressure (Edema, Herniation and Hydrocephalus)
C/107. Congenital malformations of central nervous system
C/108. Cerebrovascular diseases (Hypoxia, Ischemia, Infarction)
C/109. Intracranial haemorrhage
C/110. Degenerative diseases and dementias (Alzheimer, Parkinson, Huntington, ALS)
C/111. Infections of the nervous system (Meningitis, Encephalitis)
C/112. Prions (CJD, vCJD)
C/113. Primary diseases of myelin. Acquired metabolic and toxic disturbances of the brain
C/114. Tumors of central and peripheral nervous system
PATHOLOGY OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
B/25. Left-sided heart failure
B/26. Right-sided heart failure
B/27. Congenital heart diseases
B/28. Myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death
B/29. Angina pectoris, chronic ischemic heart disease
B/30. Hypertensive heart disease
B/31. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic myocarditis
B/32. Degenerative valvular heart disease (calcific aorta stenosis, mitral prolapse)
B/33. Infective endocarditis (acute and subacute)
B/34. Noninfective endocarditis (thrombotic endocarditis, Libman-Sacks endocarditis)
B/35. Valvular disease and their consequences
B/36. Myocarditis and Cardiomyopathies
B/37. Cor pulmonale
B/38. Pericardial disaease
B/39. Arteriolosclerosis
B/40. Aneurysms and Aortic Dissection
B/41. Arteritis and Phlebitis
B/42. Varices, varicosities and disorders of the lymphatic vessles
B/43. Cardiac and Vascular tumors