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MEDICAL CHEMISTRY (2015/2016)

Teaching of the chemical principles of the processes in living organism and of substances important from medical aspects.

    • Teaching secretary: Dr. Gergely Keszler +36-1-459 1500#60132; +36-20-666 60132
    • Student Affairs Secretary: Mr. Zsolt Ozsváth EOK Building, 1st Floor, Passage ‘C’; +36-1-459 1500#60061
    • National/Public holidays: October 23, 2015 (Friday)
    • No lectures /seminars: October 22 09:30- , 2015 (Thursday)

Lectures

Location, time,  Lecture slides

Wednesdays, 14:00-15:10; Thursdays, 08:00-09:10; Szent-Györgyi Albert Lecture Hall EOK-Builing; Semmelweis University Budapest IX., Tűzoltó utca 37-47 H-1094

Schedule of lectures

 
Week Date Topic of lectures
Lecturer: Prof. Mária Sasvári
1 09:09 Introduction to Medical Chemistry. The chemical equilibrium.
  09:10 Definition of pH and pOH, pH scale. pH of strong electrolytes
2 09:16 Acid-base theories. Acidic and basic ionization Constants (pKa and pKb).
  09:17 Conductance of strong and weak electrolytes. pH of weak acids and bases. The common ion effect; effect of strong acids on the dissociation of weark acids.
3 09:23 Acid-base indicators. Ionization of polyprotic acids. Anionic and cationic hydrolysis. Calculation of pH of salts.
  09:24 Buffers. Calculation of the pH of buffer solutions. The Henderson-Hasselbach equation. Buffer capacity.
4 09:30 The most important physiological buffer systems. The bicarbonate/carbonic acid system.
  10:01 Conditions for precipitation of salt solutions. Solubility rules.
Lecturer: Dr. Nándor Müllner
5 10:07 Solutions. Gas mixtures. Henry,s law, Bunsen coefficient. Decompression sickness. Solubility of CO2 in blood serum.
  10:08 Enthalpy change of the solution process and its relation to the solubility. Raoults law. Laws of dilute solutions.
Lecturer: Dr. László Csanády
6 10:14 Chemical thermodynamics. First law of thermodynamics in chemistry. Enthalpy change of physical processes. Determination of reaction heat from combustion heat data. Bond energy.
  10:15 Second law of thermodynamics in chemistry. Entropy content and entropy change. Gibbs free energy (or free enthalpy). Third law of thermodynamics. Free enthalpy changes in biochemistry and in redox reactions.
Lecturer: Dr. András Hrabák
7 10:21 Basics of chemical kinetics. Equilibrium constant. The thermodynamical and kinetic control of reactions.
  10:22 Catalysis. Activation energy. Arrhenius equation. Enzymes as catalysts.
8 10:28 Complex ions and coordination compounds. Central ions and ligands. IUPAC nomenclature of coordination complexes. Stability exponent. Some biomedically important coordination complexes and chelating ligands.
  10:29 Elements and inorganic coumpounds of biomedical importance.
    Lecturer: Prof. Mária Sasvári
9 11:04 Electrochemistry. Electrode potential, cation and anion electrodes. The hydrogen electrode. The electromotive force of voltaic (galvanic) cells.
  11:05 The electromotive force and the Gibbs free energy change of a reaction. The Nernst equation.
10 11:11 Concentration cells. Direction of a redox reaction. Non-polarizable electrodes.
    Lecturer: Dr. Pál Bauer
  11:12 Organic chemistry. Introduction, general structure of organic compounds. Hybridization of atomic orbitals. The hybrid states of carbon. Functional groups, general types of organic reactions.
11 11:18 Isomerism: constitution, configuration, conformation. Stereochemistry, geometric isomerism, chirality, the D/L and R/S systems, prochirality.
  11:19 The most important groups of organic compounds. Alkanes, structures, radical reactions.
12 11:25 Alkenes, their structures, properties, reactions. Alkynes: the triple bond. Aromatic compounds. Structure and reactions of benzene. Resonance stabilization in aromatic compounds. Huckel’s rule.
  11:26 Reactions of the aromatic ring: Mechanism of electrophilic substitution of aromatic compounds. Effect of substituents of the aromatic ring on the reaction rate and product formation in further electrophilic substitution type of rections. Alkyl halides. Nucleopihilic substitutions: SN1 and SN2 rections.
    Lecturer: Dr. Attila Ambrus
 13 12:02 Organic hydroxyl compounds. Classification, structures, reactions. Formation of ethers, esters.
  12:03 Aldehydes, ketones. Reactions, nucleophilic addition.
 14 12:09 Organic acids, classification, their properties, reactions.
  12:10 Nitrogen-containing organic compounds: amines, amides. Structures, reactions. Sulfur-containing organic compounds: classification, structures, reactions.

Laboratory lessons

Laboratory lessons and seminars are held at laboratory rooms of the Department of Medical Chemistry EOK-Building Budapest IX., Tűzoltó utca 37-47. Ist floor, Passage ‘D’

Dentistry groups
Group
Day
Time
Laboratory teachers
ED01
Thursday
14:00-16:15 Kapuy, Orsolya
ED02
Wednesday
11:00-13:15
Nagy, Szilvia
ED03 Thursday 14:00-16:15 Végh, Miklós
ED04 Thursday 09:30-11:45 Vereczkei, Andrea
Medicine groups   
EM01 Friday 11:00-13:40 Sasvári, Mária
EM02 Friday 08:00-10:40 Bauer, Pál
EM03 Monday 14:00-16:40 Rónai, Zsolt
EM04 Friday 11:00-13:40 Sipeki, Szabolcs
EM05 Monday 14:00-16:40 Csanády, László
EM06 Friday 11:00-13:40 Szpaszokukockaja,  Tatjana
EM07 Monday 14:00-16:40 Bak, Judit
EM08
Friday 11:00-13:40 Kapuy,  Orsolya
EM09 Tuesday 13:45-16:25 Csala, Miklós
EM10 Thursday 13:30-16:10 Ambrus, Attila
EM11 Monday 14:00-16:40 Sorum, Em Ben
EM12 Thursday 13:30-16:10 Dóczi, Judit
EM13 Monday 11:00-13:40 Barta, Csaba
EM14 Tuesday 08:00-10:40 Sorum, Em Ben
EM15 Monday 14:00-16:40 Stroe, Márta
week mm.dd laboratory lessons / seminars
1. 09:07-09:11 Safety rules. Acid-base titrations I.
2. 09:14-09:18 Acid-base titrations II.
3. 09:21-09:25 Acid-base titrations III.
4. 09:28-10:02 Titration curves
5. 10:05-10:09 Consultation I.
6. 10:12-10:16 Midterm examination 1.
7. 10:19-10:21 Titrations based on complex formation
8. 10:26-10:30 Titrations based on redoxi reactions (permanganometry, iodometry)
9. 11:02-11:06 Spectrophotometry. Determination of pK of phenol red.
10. 11:09-11:13 Electrochemistry
11. 11:16-11:20 Conductometry. Determination of ionization constant of acetic acid
12. 11:23-11:27 Midterm examination 2.
13. 11:30-12:04 Consultation II.
14. 12:07-12:11 Titration based on precipitation.
  • The temporal order of the labs marked by an asterix (*) can vary. To find out the order pertaining to your group, please, consult the detailed schedule in table format.
  • Students are expected to keep records and write protocols on the performed experiments (suggested structure: aim of the experiment, applied methods/devices/reactions, results and evaluation). Hand-written protocols might be presented either at the end of the lab lesson or at the beginning of the next practical to the lab teacher. Students might get two points for each acceptable protocol, and points collected this way are added to the total score they achieve in the corresponding midterm exams. Thus, bonus points collected in weeks 2 – 4 (at most 6) are added to the scores of midterm I and those obtained in weeks 7 – 11 (at most 10) to midterm II, respectively. Importantly, these bonus points not only improve your midterm grades but might help you pass the midterm, too.Students are expected to keep records and write protocols on the performed experiments (suggested structure: aim of the experiment, applied methods/devices/reactions, results and evaluation). Hand-written protocols might be presented either at the end of the lab lesson or at the beginning of the next practical to the lab teacher. Students might get two points for each acceptable protocol, and points collected this way are added to the total score they achieve in the corresponding midterm exams. Thus, bonus points collected in weeks 2 – 4 (at most 6) are added to the scores of midterm I and those obtained in weeks 7 – 11 (at most 10) to midterm II, respectively. Importantly, these bonus points not only improve your midterm grades but might help you pass the midterm, too.

Recommended books

  • Ebbing: General Chemistry VI Edition. (General Chemistry)
  • Hrabák-Csermely-Bauer: Principles of Organic Chemistry(manuscript) (Organic Chemistry)
  • Sasvári: Bioorganic compounds (manuscript) (Organic Chemistry)
  • Tóth: Concise inorganic chemistry for Medical Students (manuscript) (Inorganic chemistry)
  • Hrabák : Selected Collection of Chemical Calculations (manuscript) (Laboratory lessons)
  • Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry Laboratory Manual (manuscript) (Laboratory lessons)

Manuscripts can be bought in the shop of Semmelweis Publisher

  • EOK-Building, Budapest IX., Tűzoltó utca 37-47. H-1085 (“EOK KÖNYVESBOLT”)
  • Budapest VIII., Nagyvárad tér 4. H-1085

paid by Hungarian Forints

Midterm exams

  • Two midterm written examinations will be held in weeks 6 and 12 of the semester, respectively, during regular laboratory practicals.
  • Midterm tests consist of four theoretical questions and four problems (calculations). The material of midterm I covers that of lectures given in the first 5 weeks, while midterm II is based on the lecture material of weeks 6-11. Midterm tests will be evaluated by lab teachers and marked as 0, 2, 3, 4 or 5. These ’midterm bonus points’ are added to the scores achieved at the semifinal exam (see below).
  • Passing both midterms is a prerequisite to acknowledgement of the semester.
  • Failed midterms might be retaken twice.
  • The first retake is written, comprising four theoretical questions and four calculations. It should be performed in week 7 (retake of midterm I) and week 13 (retake of midterm II), supervised by the student’s own lab teacher.
  • Students having failed the first retake might sit for the second retake in the last week of the semester. The second retake is an oral exam conducted by an examination committee. Students having failed the first retake of both midterms I and II will be examined in the material of both midterms at the same time..

Competition

Those students who have passed BOTH midterm examinations with a grade of 3 or better are entitled to participate in the competition. Eligible students should sign up at their lab teachers. The competition is organized in week 14 (the exact date and venue will be announced later). It is based on the whole material of the semester and has the same format as the written semifinal except that no lab essays will be asked. Students achieving at least 75% of the maximal score will be exempted from the semifinal exam.

Semi-final examination

Semifinal examination

 

Only those students who have fulfilled both acknowledgement criteria, thus obtained an official electronic Neptun signature, are entitled to sit for the semifinal exam.

 

The semifinal is a written exam that consists of two theoretical parts and a practical exam.

 

First theoretical part (45 min): drawing 10 structures within 45 min (both inorganic and organic, 1 point each), answering two short questions (providing definitions of two ’important terms’ taken from the topic list; one point each) and solving four chemical calculations (2 points each).

The list of structures to be memorized can be found on the last page of this document. Please note that any inorganic base or salt might be asked that can be formed by combining any cations and anions provided there. Moreover, any normal or branched-chain alkane, alkene or alkyne (up to eight carbon atoms) can be asked such as 2,3-dimethyl-penthane, 3-methyl-2-hexene etc.

 

Second theoretical part (80 min): 40 multiple choice questions (1 point each).

Lab exam (practical exam) (15 min): writing an essay on a laboratory experiment performed during the semester (evaluation: 0, unacceptable; 1 point, minor mistakes; 2 points, clear, detailed and correct). Exact quantities (mass, volume of reagents, incubation times etc.) are not expected here.

 

Therefore, the maximal score is 20 + 40 + 2 = 62.

 

The exam is unsuccessful with

  • 10 or less points in part 1, OR
  • 20 or less points in part 2, OR
  • 0 point from the practical exam.

 

Students who pass both part 1 AND part 2 but fail the practical essay have to retake only the practical essay when they repeat the semifinal exam. Those who want a better grade are entitled to rewrite the first 2 parts as well; however, risking that they might perform worse.

Students who pass the practical exam but fail either part 1 or part 2 (or both parts) are obliged to retake both theoretical parts but not the practical exam.

 

In case of successful exams, i. e. when both theoretical units and the practical exam are successfully completed (at least 11, 21 and 1 points are obtained in blocks 1, 2 and the practical essay, respectively), bonus points from the midterms (at most 10) are added to the scores acquired during the exam. Therefore, successful semifinals are evaluated as follows:

 

33-39 points = grade 2 (pass)

40-49 points = grade 3 (satisfactory)

50-59 points = grade 4 (good)

60-72 points = grade 5 (excellent).

 

It is possible to write the practical essay in week 14, in the first 15 minutes of the last laboratory practical of the semester. Students successfully completing this test (getting 1 or 2 points) are exempted from writing the practical exam at the semifinal exam.

It is to note that this is an extra opportunity for passing the practical exam prior to the beginning of the exam period and in case of failure the semifinal exam should proceed as outlined above.

Topic list

Obligatory formulas

        The 10 structures asked in the semifinal exam will be selected from the following list

 

Inorganic acids and other compounds: sulfuric acid, sulfurous acid, nitric acid, nitrous acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, hypochlorous acid, chlorous acid, chloric acid, perchloric acid, hypobromous acid, bromous acid, bromic acid, perbromic acid, hydrogen cyanide, metaphosphoric acid, orthophosphoric acid, boric acid, carbonic acid, water, ammonia, hydrazine, hydroxylamine, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, pyrophosphate anion, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, sulfur dioxide, sulfur trioxide, hydroxyapatite, fluoroapatite, ferrous ammonium sulfate

 

Any inorganic salts and bases consisting of  the following cations and anions:

Cations: ammonium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, ferrous, ferric, cuprous, cupric, zinc, silver, aluminium, mercurous, mercuric, manganese

Anions: hydroxide, oxide, fluoride, chloride, bromide, sulfide, sulfate, sulfite, hydrogen sulfate, thiosulfate, nitrate, nitrite, hypochlorite, chlorite, chlorate, perchlorate, hypobromite, bromite, bromate, perbromate, cyanide, phosphate, monohydrogen phosphate, dihydrogen phosphate, carbonate, hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate), permanganate, chromate, ferricyanide

 

Hydrocarbons: alkanes, alkenes and alkynes (up to carbon number 8, both normal- and branched-chain isomers); 1,3-butadiene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene (isoprene)

 

Aromatic rings: benzene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrrole, thiophene, furane, thiazole, oxazole, imidazole, pyrazole, pyridine, pyrane, pyrazine, pyrimidine, purine, indole, pteridine, acridine

 

Small organic compounds: methanol, ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, inositol, phenol, diethylether, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, mercaptoethanol, aniline, urea, guanidine

 

Organic acids: formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, caproic acid, oxalic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, lactic acid, b-hydroxybutyric acid, pyruvic acid, acetoacetic acid, citric acid, cis-aconitic acid, isocitric acid, a-ketoglutaric acid, malic acid, oxaloacetic acid

 

Types of bondings and derivatives: ether, phenolether, thioether, ester, lactone, thioester, anhydride (including mixed and phosphoric acid anhydrides), hemiacetale, hemiketale (cyclic forms included), Schiff-base, oxime, hydrazone, hydroxamic acid, amide, thiol, sulfinic acid, sulfonic acid, sulfoxide, acyl chloride.

Exemption

Students who learned general, inorganic and organic chemistry at a university level prior to the commencement of their studies at Semmelweis University might sit for an exemption exam that takes place in the middle of September. Students are kindly asked to present their official documents (transcripts with exam results and a detailed syllabus on the courses they completed) to the tutor (Gergely Keszler, EOK building, room 2.132).

The exemption exam encompasses parts 1 and 2 of the semifinal (structures, short definitions of important terms, calculations and multiple choice questions); lab essays will not be asked.

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